Tuesday, July 23, 2019

A Man That Holds My Heart Essay Example for Free

A Man That Holds My Heart Essay Many people have ways of influencing others. Most people use words to affect other people. An amount of individuals would utilize their gift of persuasion to convince others of their causes or maybe arguments, while some use authority to force people to do as they are told. These several differences can apply to fathers as well. Not all fathers are similar when it comes to educating their children. Many are gentle, while some are more dominant. Randy T Caldwell, a somewhat young spirited middle aged man. Dark skinned with black Gucci frames to accommodate his big brown eyes. Standing 5’11, board shoulders, happy, loving, man of Christ and always seen with a look upon his face that means business falls under those descriptions of a father. My father is a man of many words. He is a very talkative man, somewhat quiet but only when listening to someone of when needed. He is not a very persuasive person like others, nor does he use authority to get his message across. All the lessons I’ve learned from my father were never taught in lectures or by long stories. Instead, he gave me real life examples for me to follow. I learned everything I needed to know from my father, through his own life. It was the way he lived his poverty stricken and fearful life which taught me how to live a more effective, goal reaching, non-poverty stricken live. Indeed, my father was a man of many words and was a man of many words but yet he had a soft heart. My father has simple interests. He is very fond of watching college football, and often watches when he can. When he has time he would go hiking occasionally. However, his favorite thing to do is go fishing. At such a young age, I was very fascinated with the fact that he would bring home huge, 10 foot long, stinky fish but I always loved it. Aside from being an outdoor, outgoing , talkative man ; my father was a man of Christ. Just like on the man that are always, dressed up , Stay Adams , the best pen striped suit, at the front of the church serving communion on first Sundays . That’s My Father! Even though he had a horrible, poverty stricken, gangster life as a child he is a firm believer in Christ. He has not preached about his faith even though he is very talkative; he has never given lessons on religious and mortality. He just simply lived by example. Whenever faced with difficulty, he simply thinks about what Christ would do in a situation as such. It was one the most remarkable things I find remember able about him. In one instance, I went fishing with my father. I’m not really fond of the outdoors like he was, but I loved spending time with him. It had been raining earlier that morning, so the fishing area was wet. He insisted we go to is regular spot so we did. It was under an old rugged beat down bridge that was covered with green algae. By the time we were done fishing we both were hungry. We proceeded to the nearest fast food place, which happened to be McDonald’s. As I ate my lunch it began to rain very badly; I than begin to look out the window at an old man whose clothes torn with the look of death in his eyes, standing in the middle of the parking lot. As my father made his way to the table where I was dining he caught my gaze. He immediately re packed his Big Mac fully made all the way everything on it , his supersized fry, and even his drink and went right out the door. Just as hungry as he was he gave the old man his meal. On the way home my father said nothing. Again, he taught me a lesson through his own example. My father can be described as many things talkative, outgoing, loving, caring, and firm believer in Christ. But one thing he will always be described as to me would be the man that has taught me to be the best I can be. My father is a good father, he is rather different than other fathers; but that’s what makes him the best.

Monday, July 22, 2019

Realism In International Affairs Essay Example for Free

Realism In International Affairs Essay Realism in politics is a political philosophy, which tries to observe, shape and predict political relations. It is based upon assumption that power should be the primary goal of any political act, both in international or domestic sphere. As far as domestic affairs are concerned, this theory states that political figures are supposed to direct all efforts to maximizing their power. Accordingly, in the international sphere nation should aim at maximizing its power among other states. This theory can be regarded as a prescription to be followed by politicians and states or as a description of current affairs of the state or politician pursuing self-interest. Realism in politics is often defined as a principle of power supremacy, and it has a long history since the ancient times. It was reflected in Peloponnesian War by Thucydides. This theory was also touched by Machiavelli in his writing The Prince, as well as by other outstanding philosophers like Spinoza, Hobbes and Rousseau. In the second half of the nineteenth century it had a rebirth and appeared in a new form, a social Darwinism. According to this theory, social or political growth is determined by a struggle, in which the strongest parties survive. According to the theory of political realism, interests should be satisfied by means of power exercise, and the world is defined by competing powers. In this context, the adherents of Marxist theory refer to classes, while other political theorists to states. (Ahrensdorf) Political realism is explained in the following way: â€Å"Prior to the French Revolution in which nationalism as a political doctrine truly entered the worlds stage, political realism involved the political jurisdictions of ruling dynasties, whilst in the nineteenth century, nationalist sentiments focused realists attentions on the development of the nation-state, a policy that was later extended to include imperialist ambitions on the part of the major Western powers-Britain and France, and even Belgium, Germany and the United States were influenced by imperialism. † (Viotti, Kauppi). Important difference between social darwinism and other branches political realism is as follows: adherents of the former state that some nations are destined to rule over other nations, while other part of realists pays most attention to the need of ensuring that nation, culture or politician sets or secures own needs before needs or interests of others. Political realism in international affairs Political realism of an expressive kind stands for the suggestion that international commonwealth is distinguished by anarchy, since there is no absolute world government, that could rule with an all-purpose policy code. Since the anarchy does not need a chaotic nature, thus allowing member nations be involved into trading schemes or treaties, the theorists mostly agree that morality or law are not the dominating factors outside one particular state. In this particular characteristic this hypothesis agrees with the Hobb’s theory: Where there is no common Power, there is no Law: where no Law, no Injustice ? if there be no Power erected, or not great enough for our security; every man will and may lawfully rely on his own strength and art, for caution against all other men. (Hobbes, Leviathan , Part I, Ch. 13 Of Man, and Part II, Ch. 17, Of Commonwealth, cited in Griffiths, O’Callaghan). Respectively, without any supreme international force, nations treat each other with hostility or fear, and it damages the system. Another aspect of the theory is an assumption that a state can promote its interest against the needs and interests of other states, it proves that international surrounding is not stable. Any order is affected if states compete for the same need, and under such circumstances, as the realists state, the nation may rely on itself only. There are definite contradictions that can be found in the concept of political realism: descriptive realism may be regarded as a true theory or false concept. Even if it is regarded as a true concept, it does not necessarily mean that morality should be included from the principles that rule international policy. One of the strong forms if descriptive type of political realism states that states should be self-seeking, that they should build their policy basing upon desired gains of the nation and should not ignore their interests and demands. Simultaneously, â€Å"if descriptive realism is held, it is as a closed theory, which means that it can refute all counter-factual evidence on its own terms (for example, evidence of a nation offering support to a neighbor as an ostensible act of altruism, is refuted by pointing to some self-serving motive the giving nation presumably hasit would increase trade, it would gain an important ally, it would feel guilty if it didnt, and so on), then any attempt to introduce morality into international affairs would prove futile. † (Stern) The assessment of expressive kind of political realism power depends upon the chance of understanding political reasons, which requests understanding the causes of state diplomats and representatives. The pattern of officers’ relations, their motives and actions is complex. Waltz says that the closed nature of expressive realism includes a oppose scheme that nations does not serve any needs at all, or can serve the needs of others only. The logical value of the three theories resulting from this concept offers that preferring one condition to another is an optional decision, if an assumption is accepted, or not. (Waltz) The present international sphere of nations’ interaction is defined by the lack of supreme power. In the past, wars were a strong argument in support of political realism – there have been more than 200 wars since the middle of the 17th century. This condition seems to have a chaotic nature, and some thinkers are likely to compare it to domestic anarchy, when state government is not able to rule the state: ‘Without a world power, war, conflict, tension, and insecurity have been the regular state of affairs; just as a domestic government removes internal strife and punishes local crime, so too ought a world government control the activities of individual states-overseeing the legality of their affairs and punishing those nations that break the laws, and thereby calming the insecure atmosphere nations find themselves in†. (Kegley, Wittkopf) At the same time, such comparison leads to a conclusion that the relations between the state and the individuals are alike. Such argument includes the personification of the states and collectivization of individuals. Some theorists state that the relations between states and the citizens cannot be compared to the relations between the states and the relations of the individuals, and therefore should be differently judged. In addition to the propositions of descriptive realism, there are notions offered by prescriptive political realism, for instance, the statement that a certain nation should follow its own interests and needs independently of the relevant state of international relations. This theory can be divided into various aspects, depending upon proclaimed interest of the nation and the allowability of the tools that would be used to reach desired goals. As far as the national interest is concerned, there are distinct opinions of what it should be, but all of them agree that the state should be self-efficient in economical and political sphere, cutting dependency on other nations. (The Globalization of World Politics: an Introduction to International Relations) The statement supporting the supremacy of self-sufficiency of the state has appeared long time ago. Plato and Aristotle referred to this aspect as a ground necessary to provide security of the national power, they insisted that nation should import only insignificant commodities. This economic theory has been used for supporting political realism, especially in the 18th century the theorists of political sphere stated that the political power of the nation is reached and supported in the terms of reduced import and increased export only. Difference between neorealism and classical realism Conflict is regarded as a key element in politics, including international affairs, by all realists, however, there are two different sources of conflict, pointed out by different realist authors. For instance, classical realism theory starts with a pessimistic viewpoint on the human nature. As the adherents of this theory believe, selfish, competitive and striving for power behavior in inherent for the humans. Hans Morgenthau states that each individual is enforced to act uncaringly to protect himself, and this situation leads to the disagreement: â€Å"What the one wants for himself, the other already possesses or wants, too. Struggle and competition ensue. Man cannot [therefore] hope to be good, but must be content with not being too evil†. (Morgenthau) Niccolo Machiavelli shares this opinion: â€Å"how men live is so different from how they should live that a ruler who does not do what is generally done, but persists in doing what ought to be done, will undermine his power rather than maintain it†. (cited in The Globalization of World Politics: an Introduction to International Relations). These ideas performed specific approach to a strategy applied in international affairs: a careful statesman must avoid optimistic view on others’ aims and intentions and limits their initiatives to those that may help if the situation goes better. For instance, Henry Kissinger warned the leaders of the USA and Israeli against the intentions of Syria and Palestine, during the negotiations on Middle East conflict: â€Å"It is likely that agreements will be reached because the alternatives will, in the end, seem more dangerous. But when this happens, we must avoid euphoria. An agreement will represent a strategic interlude for the Syrians and most of the Palestinians, not a commitment to a new world order. † (Legro, Moravcsik) In other words, classical type of realism regards conflict and competition as essential element of international affairs, referring the origin of conflict to the human nature. Humans struggle with each other for resources they need and strive for power to rule over other people. This is a set pattern, which cannot be changed. Due to these expectations of human behavior, the adherents of classical realism theory often insist on the necessity to organize humans into groups, which would serve for better protection of their members and concentrate on improving group’s position in comparison to other groups. Another theory, neorealism or structural realism, refers the origin of conflict to interstate condition, the lack of legally restricting rules in particular, rather than to human nature. The adherents of neorealism state, that â€Å"the absence of a neutral authority that can enforce rules and agreements creates an insecure, self-help situation in which all policy makers are pressured to act competitively, regardless of their individual natures or personal preferences. † (Kegley, Wittkopf) This statement is not new, it appeared in the 17th century in the work of Thomas Hobbes. In his writing Leviathan he states that the in the world, which lacks supreme power that could provide security, people has a right to use any tools to protect themselves. Besides, he assumed that â€Å"all mankind [has] a per ¬petual and restless desire of power after power that ceases only in death. † (cited in The Globalization of World Politics: an Introduction to International Relations) Modern tradition in neorealist theory declines the assumption that individuals strive for power due to a natural inclination, and concentrates on the motives produced by a lack of a neutral power that can set rules for interstate relations. For instance, Kenneth Waltz says that â€Å"the main cause of war must lie in some regularity at the level of the interstate system, rather than within particular leaders or states, since war has been waged for all sorts of specific reasons and by good as well as bad leaders. † (Waltz) According to Waltz, this regularity is the pressure, produced by anarchy: â€Å"Without enforceable interstate rules, states must either resist possible domination by others through a policy of balancing against others power capabilities, or by bandwagoning-joining a coalition that supports an aggres ¬sive state, in hopes of turning its aggression elsewhere†. (Waltz) Waltz states that large states possess the capacity and desire to withstand the strength of other states. This results, as he sees it, in a tendency of competitiveness among states independently of the views of their leaders concerning domestic policy. Actually, the prediction of this statement is not much different from the assumption made by the adherents of classical realism. As soon as it is based on the assumptions concerning human nature, classic realists expect that the makers of policy also act competitively. The difference lies in the way this conclusion is reached. As Waltz sees it, this is the pressure of competitiveness, produced by anarchy, which significantly influences the human behavior. Those strategies that are oriented on power, appear because the leaders are forced to struggle for security, rather than because they desire just to obtain power. Realistic approach in modern international affairs Realism was a concept for analyzing world politics since remote times, because much of humankind history was characterized by wars. As soon as the states’ interests come across in conflict, it is expected that leaders pay much attention to their positions in power. â€Å"The classical realist worldview appealed to many statesmen during the period that states were evolving in Western Europe-an era rife with conflict, as medieval forms of rule broke down and rulers asserted new claims to authority against feudal lords or the Pope. It jumped to the United States when the experiences of World War II were followed by the onset of the Cold War. Neorealism later emerged when the bipolarity of the Cold War drew analysts attention to the effects of the structure of the interstate system†. (Lieven, Hulsman). At present, ethical realism is offered to the USA as a leading principle that should define the foreign policy of this state. As it is described by the supporters of this type of realism, it bases upon â€Å"prudence; a concentration on possible results rather than good intentions; a close study of the nature, views and interests of other states, and a willingness to accommodate them when these do not contradict Americas own truly vital interests; and a mixture of profound American patriotism with an equally profound awareness of the limits on both American power and on American goodness† (Lieven, Hulsman). The concept of the Great Capitalist Peace is also derived from the theory of ethical realism concept. It is based upon the ideas of Kennan and Morgenthau, including the concepts of diplomacy purposes and international order. It proclaims that a global order is needed to be agreed by the largest states, to provide the promotion of their interests and reduce the threat of terrorists. Accordingly, the USA power is treated as an element, vital for keeping the Great Capitalist Peace. At the same time, it is added that the limits should be put on the US power, in order to legitimate interests and needs of other states should be satisfied. Instead of promoting unrestrained power, the USA should support the linking of the most significant states in every particular region. For instance, in the Middle East region the USA should use its power and resources to support creation of a regional patter for the states, including Syria and Iran, and to make this pattern functional enough to regulate Iraq conflict after withdrawal of the US troops from this country. (Lieven, Hulsman) As far as the Far East is concerned, the USA should paid attention to the primary role, which should be played by China in this region, but not by the United States. China is treated as a state, ready to act in cooperation with other states and act responsibly, that’s why USA should allow China to occupy a leading position in finding resolutions to the actions of the regime in the North Korea, and other possible challenges in this region. (Lieven, Hulsman) Sources Waltz, K. N. Structural Realism after the Cold War. International Security. Summer. 2000 Morgenthau, H. J. Politics Among Nations: the Struggle for Power and Peace. McGraw Hill: NY, 1993. Stern, G. The Structure of International Society. London: Pinter Publishers, 2000. The Globalization of World Politics: an Introduction to International Relations. edited by Baylis, J. and S. Smith. Oxford University Press, 2004 Griffiths, M. , O’Callaghan, T. International Relations: The Key Concepts. London, Routledge, 2002 Kegley, C. Wittkopf, E. World Politics. Thomson/Wadsworth, 2005. Viotti, P. R. Kauppi, M. V. International Relations Theory: Realism, Pluralism, Globalism. Macmillan Pub Co, 1993. Legro, J. W. Moravcsik, A. Is Anybody Still a Realist? International Security. Fall 1999 Jervis, R. Realism, Neoliberalism, and Cooperation.. International Security. Summer 1999 Ahrensdorf, P. J. Thucydides realistic critique of realism. Polity Winter 1997 Lieven, A. Hulsman, J. Americas World Role Has to be Realistic and Moral. October 17, 2006, retrieved at http://www. realisticforeignpolicy. org/archives/2006/10/americas_world. php.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

The Life Span Developmental Perspective Psychology Essay

The Life Span Developmental Perspective Psychology Essay The first chapter was very interesting from start to finish. However, out of all the concepts covered in this chapter the original sin, tabula rasa, and innate goodness views were the concepts that really fascinated me. The reason for this is that I am a Roman Catholic, therefore as part of my faith I am supposed to believe that we are all born with original sin. After reading the Tabula Rasa View and dwelling on my basic knowledge of human behavior, I leaned more towards English philosopher John Lockes theory. I believe that children are not born innately bad. It has been said that a childs brain is like a sponge therefore it absorbs everything. With that being said, it is obvious that a child develops characteristics through experience. This would also mean that I agree with nurture as oppose to Nature for child development. However, I do believe that genetics and disorders such as mental illness that one might acquire through birth can impact the way they are developed. Chapter 1 gave me a basic understanding of Life Span Developmental Psychology as well as an idea of what I can expect to learn and study in later chapters. Chapter 2 : The Science of Life Span Development introduced me to theories of development, such as Psychoanalytic, Cognitive, and Ethological. In addition, the different research methods used by scientists such as standard tests and correlation research. As well as the challenges ethics, gender, and culture have on the research. This chapter also informed me on the different theories developed by scientists such as Erik Erikson, Sigmund Freud, and B.F. Skinner and the impact they had and still do have on life span development. As chapter 1 grabbed my interest with the ideas and concepts of Life Span Development being predominantly environmental as oppose to biological, so did chapter 2. Not only did I agree with the view of Social Cognitive Theory being that behavior, environment, and cognition are the key factors in development, I was fascinated on how the book related Banduras model to a college students achievement behavior. The example stated that a college student who studies hard and gets good grades produces positivity in their thoughts and abilities. If the college provides a study skill class and the students succeed, then this is an example on how environment influenced behavior. In return, if the college expanded their study skills program based on the success of its past students, then this is an example of behavior changing the environment. The most interesting part of Chapter 2 was the role ethics play in Life Span Development research. Obviously people are entitled to rights of privacy and do not like the intrusive vibes that some researchers might give off during an experiment. However I do believe that in order to obtain the greatest amount of useful information, flexibility and professionalism by the scientists and subjects are needed to produce the best result. Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Biological Beginnings examined the concepts of evolution and the early stages of Life Span Development. Genetics, DNA, chromosomes, and the effects of biological make up have on development were introduced. In addition, the relationship and importance of hereditary and environmental interaction were examined. Essentially, this chapter was everything you would have learned from fifth grade sexual education, but on a larger more in depth scale. I am one of six children and hope to be a father someday. With that being said, I found the section on infertility the most interesting as well as the most useful concept revealed in this chapter. I was already aware of the fact that drugs such as cocaine and marijuana can affect the sperm count in men, but I was not aware that it was reversible after approximately one year. With all the shows on TV such as John and Kate Plus Eight or the Octo-Mom craze, it was interesting to learn how infertility drugs have caused super ovulation, meaning to produce three or more babies at a time. While the infertility section was useful and informative, I would have liked to learn more about preventative actions that could be used against problems such as immobile sperm, and Pituitary or ovarian tumors. The chapter only covered possible causes and treatments for fertility disorders, not the acts that could save someone from the pain, suffering, and expense that infertility brings. Even if it were small common known facts like wearing boxers over briefs. Its a simple yet effective way of eliminating low sperm count and ultimately infertility. I feel that this type of information could decrease the ten to fifteen percent of couples who face infertility in the United States as stated by the book. Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Prenatal Development and Birth covered anything and everything there is to know about pregnancy before, during, and after. Prenatal developmental subjects such as cultural beliefs, teratology and prenatal hazards were introduced as well as the three periods of prenatal development. These three periods are germinal, embryonic, and fetal. Following the three periods of prenatal development, the book described the three stages of birth which are contractions, movement of the babys head to the cervix, and finally the afterbirth where the placenta and umbilical cord are removed. The chapter ended with the post-partum period, where the woman returns to pre-pregnancy state as well as her adjustments and relationship with the baby. With such an informative and interesting chapter, it is difficult for me to choose a topic that intrigued me more or left me with doubt and unanswered questions. Perhaps the section that I absorbed the most information from was the post-partum period. The information given about the physical, emotional, and psychological adjustments that a woman goes through after pregnancy will be useful for me with the future mother of my children. A part of post child birth that this chapter exposed me to that I never really gave much thought, was the fact that the men go through difficult adjustments in the post-partum period as well. Apparently, men suffer from a jealousy of the babys attention which I felt was ridiculous. However, I do believe that time set aside for the couple is very important for their sanity and will ultimately lead to better parenting. So if my wife is suffering from excessive worrying, depression, extreme changes in appetite, crying spells or inability to sleep, I will kn ow from chapter 4 of Life Span Developmental Psychology, that she might require professional help. Chapter 5 As stated in the title, chapter 5 covered the Physical Development in Infancy. The physical growth aspects of infancy such as Cephalocaudal and Proximodistal patterns, height weight, nutrition, and even toilet training were described. Following the physical developments, motor, sensory and perceptual development was defined through definitions such as sensation, when information interacts with sensory receptors, and the five different forms of reflexes. Chapter 5 alone can be a useful tool for parents who have any questions on the development of an infant. Out of the many topics covered in this chapter, I of course identified most with the toilet training. For years I had pride myself on the notion that I was some sort of baby genius because I learned to potty train at the age of four. After reading that children have the physical and motor skills to use the toilet as oppose to their pants, I realized that I was not a baby genius but a late bloomer. Besides destroying my ego, I did learn that one of the main reasons I have been underweight my whole life is due to the fact that I was not breast fed. The book states the breast feeding allows appropriate weight gain, fewer allergies, less diaherria and many other benefits that I did not have the opportunity to experience. This chapter had me realize how the physical development in infancy can affect the physical developments of adolescence and adult hood. Ultimately, this chapter reinforced the importance of proper nutrition, continuous stimulation of the mind and body are crucial during infant development. Chapter 6 The memory, sensory, and language of infants were all described in Chapter 6 Cognitive Development in Infancy. A name that was mentioned numerous times throughout the chapter was psychologist Jean Piaget. Piaget developed a theory on Cognitive Development after meticulously observing of his own children; Laurent, Lucienne, and Jacqueline. Piaget believed that a child passes through different stages of thought from birth to adolescence. An important concept of his theory is scheme, which helps individuals organize and understand their experiences. The most fascinating part of chapter six for me was the defining, of language and a childs development of vocabulary. An interesting fact I learned was that children all over the world reach language milestones at about the same time developmentally despite vast variation in language input. The chapter also offered helpful strategies to develop an infants language and those are recasting, echoing, expanding, and labeling. An example for recasting is if the baby says the bell rang the parent should respond by saying where did the bell ring. This allows the infant to learn the language by elaborating on an interest they had already stated. Perhaps the most common method is labeling, which is just basically naming objects and having the baby repeat them such eyes, and ears. The chapter ended by stating that parents should not use any deliberate method to teach their children to talk and that if the child is a slow learner intervention should happen naturally with the goal of being able to convey a meaning. Chapter 7 Chapter 7 Socioemotional Development in Infancy defined what emotional and personality development are in addition to the definition of attachment and infants in social contexts. The vast emotions an infant contains from crying to smiling were detailed such as the differences between an anger cry and a pain cry, as well as the difference between a reflexive smile and a social smile. Other concepts introduced were defining temperament, which psychiatrist have argued that there are three types an easy, difficult, and slow-to-warm-up child. The chapter ended focusing on the importance of a childs surrounding such as family and day care. These concepts were the transition to parenthood, the family as a system, and maternal/parental infant care giving. What captivated my attention the most from this chapter was the section on attachment, because it is something that I believe is very crucial in a childs development, however there are many different ideas and methods that can sometime cause debate or conflict between parents. Something I learned new about attachment from the chapter was that attachment does not emerge suddenly but rather develops in a series of phases. The first phase starts from birth to two months where infants are instinctively directing their attention to any human being, family or stranger. The second phase is from two to seven months in which the attachment becomes focused on one figure usually the primary caregiver, and learns the difference between familiar and unfamiliar faces. From seven to twenty-four months in phase three the infant makes specific attachments to their main caregivers. Finally, in phase four a goal corrected partnership is formed which the child becomes aware of others and takes this into account when deciding their actions. Chapter 8 The early childhood section of the book started in Chapter 8 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood. The physical development was defined by body growth and change, motor development, nutrition, and illness/death. The concepts described in the cognitive development, were Piagets and Vygotskys theories of development, information processing, language development, and early childhood education. In addition, to information processing, language development, and early childhood education. The most alarming information listed in this chapter was the leading causes of illness and death for young children in the united states. Out of all the diseases that could potentially harm a child, accidents are still the leading cause of child fatality. Accidents such as motor vehicle, drowning, falls, and poisoning are higher risks than cancer, meningitis, measles, and even chicken pox. One of the many useful tips listed in this chapter were the descriptions of young childrens education programs. Such as the difference between Montessori and child centered kindergarten. In kindergarten, the instructor focuses on the process of learning, rather than what is actually being learned. Montessori instructors serve as more of a facilitator allowing children to practice freedom and spontaneity. I learned that Montessori offers way more than what I thought was just a glorified day care. Studies have shown that while early childhood education is good, it is important to not add too much stress on a child early, for they can develop a pattern of stress. Chapter 9 The theme for chapter 9 was Socioemotional Development in early childhood development. This included emotional and personality development, families and peer evaluations. The emotional and personality development covered self understanding, emotional development, moral development and gender identity. The family section of this chapter consisted of different styles of parenting which included authoritarian, authorative, neglectful, and indulgent. In addition to sibling influence, relationship, and the affect working parents have on a childs development. Finally, the funnest part of the chapter was all about the different aspects of childs play such as games and television. As I stated earlier, I really enjoyed the different descriptions of child playing listed in this chapter. According to Mildred Parten, there are four classifications of childrens play which include unoccupied, solitary, onlooker, parallel, associative, and cooperative. Each different classification offers the child different skills of learning and drawbacks. Unoccupied play, solitary, onlooker, and parallel play are generally practiced by children between the ages of 3 to 7, preschool kindergarten years. Associative and cooperative play is generally more structured and is aimed towards competition and winning therefore they are aimed for 7 years and beyond. A shocking statistic that the book offered was the effects of television on Childrens Aggression and prosocial behavior. In on longitudinal study, the amount of violence viewed on television at age 8 was significantly related to the seriousness of criminal acts performed as an adult. The chapter contained a chart that exposed the percentage of 9 year old children who report watching more than five hours of television per weekday, the chart revealed that the United States led all countries in the 21.3 percentile. Chapter 10 Chapter 10 opened section 5 of the book which covers middle and late childhood. The chapter covered the Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle and Late Childhood. The physical development section covered body growth and proportion, motor development, exercise and sports, health, illness, diseases, and children with disabilities. The cognitive development section consisted of Piagets theory, information processing, intelligence, creativity, and language development. Being a firm believer in the importance of exercise and sports, I identified with that aspect of the chapter. As I was completely already aware of, the book stated that American children do not receive enough exercise in their development. According to a 1997 study, only 22 percent of children between the ages of 9 to 12 participate in thirty minutes of physical activity a day. The parents of the other 78 percent said their children were too busy playing video games, watching TV, or wasting time on the computer. I really liked how the chapter brought up the issue of school sports programs not facing enough moral questioning. I am a firm believer in the costiveness that sports have on students. I believe it raises their confidence, teaches them to work hard and push themselves. However, often times the school sport programs interfere with a childs academic, which is by far the most important aspect of human development. There needs to be better regulation of these programs to ensure the success of its student-athletes. Chapter 11 The Socioemotional Development in Middle and Late Childhood. The following concepts were Emotional and Personality development, families, peers, and schools. Like in previous chapters, emotional and personality development consisted of the self, emotional, moral and gender identity and development. Family section covered parent child issues such as the issue of changes in discipline. The peers section dealt with concepts of peer statuses, bullying, social cognition, and friendship. I enjoyed the peer section of this chapter. It was interesting to read their definition, and reasoning behind social statuses such as popular children, neglected children, rejected children, and controversial children. According to the book, popular children are frequently nominated as a best friend and are rarely disliked by their peers. Popular children give out reinforcements, listen carefully, maintain open lines of communication with peers, are happy, act like them, show enthusiasm and concern for others, and are self-confident without being conceited. I disagree with this definition. From my understanding, popular children are usually popular based on superior athletic abilities, good looks, charm and charisma. Most of the time they are very conceited and show very little concern for others, speaking as a former popular child, I was an asshole. The section on bullying was very informative. I particularly enjoyed their suggestions on the reducing of bullying which were to get older peers to serve as monitors for bullying and intervene when they see it taking place, form friendship groups for adolescents who are regularly bullied by peers, incorporate the message of the anti-bullying program into church, school, and other community activates where adolescents are involved. Chapter 12 Section 6 Adolescents opened up with Chapter 12 Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence. The concepts covered in this chapter were the nature of adolescence, puberty, adolescent sexuality, adolescent problems and health, adolescent cognition, and schools. Puberty was defined by pubertys boundaries and determinants, hormonal changes, height, weight, sexual maturation, body image, early and late maturation. Adolescent sexuality consisted of developing a sexual identity, the progression of adolescent sexual behaviors, risk factors for sexual problems, contraceptive use, sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy. Adolescent health and problems covered substance use and abuse, eating disorders, and general adolescent health. Adolescent cognition was defined by Piagets theory, egocentrism, and information processing. Finally schools impact on adolescence went over the transition of middle school, effective schools, high school dropouts, and moral education. Without a doubt chapter 12 was by far the most interesting and informational chapter yet. With such well written, intelligent facts on the changes that adolescence brings, I almost felt as if I was reliving that time in development myself after reading this chapter. Perhaps one of the more interesting facts listed was the progression of adolescent sexual behavior. According to a survey done in 1998, the majority of adolescent females first voluntary sexual partner are 27 percent of the time to be 3 or four times older and 12 percent are 5 or more years older. The average age children lose their virginity is 17, this means that 12 percent of the time, 22 year olds or older are engaging in sexual intercourse with teenagers. I found that to be very distributing. Chapter 13 Following the books typical pattern, the second chapter in the section of Adolescence dealt with the Socioemotional Development in Adolescence. The chapters concepts were identity, families, peers, culture and adolescent development, and adolescent problems. Identity discussed contemporary thoughts about identity, identity statuses and development, family influences on identity, cultural and ethnic aspects of identity. The Families section had two major concepts which were autonomy and attachment as well as parent adolescent conflict. The peers section was defined the three concepts of Peer groups, friendships, and dating/romantic relationships. Culture and adolescent development consisted of the cross cultural comparisons and rites of passage and ethnicity concept. Finally, the adolescent problems section of the chapter discussed concepts of juvenile delinquency, depression and suicide, in addition to the interrelation of problems and successful prevention/ intervention programs. After reading this chapter I realized that I am more intrigued by the Adolescent development stage rather than early childhood. I think this could be because I am closer to it age wise, but mostly due to the fact that it is such an intense, and complex part of a persons life that it can affect their future. Speaking from a former delinquent, I felt that the chapter described the causes of delinquency being partially hereditary, identity problems, community influences, and family experiences all just factors. Chapter 14 Section 7 Early Adulthood was opened with Chapter 14 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood. The chapter dealt with the transition from adolescence to adulthood, physical development, sexuality, cognitive development, careers and work. The section on the transition from adolescence to adulthood consisted of two concepts being the criteria for becoming an adult, and the transition from high school to college. Physical development included the peak and slowdown in physical performance, eating and weight, regular exercise, and substance abuse. The sexuality section was defined by sexual orientation, sexually transmitted diseases, forcible sexual behavior and sexual harassment. Cognitive Development focused on cognitive stages and creativity. The most intense section was careers and work because it consisted of the following concepts; developmental changes, personality types, values and careers, monitoring the occupational handbook, the skills employers want, finding the r ight career, and just work in general. Since I could be considered an early adult, I found this chapter to be very relatable and interesting. Of course the most interesting section of this chapter was sexuality. What was so interesting about this section were once again the surveys results. According to this survey Americans tend to fall into three categories, one third have sex twice a week or more, one third have a few times a month, and the other third has it a few times a year or less. A result from the essay I did not agree with or thought perhaps is out dated, was that America believes strongly in sexual behavior between married couples and monogamy. There have been many other studies and surveys that proved opposite that we are one of the many non-monogamous countries in the world today. Chapter 15 Socioemotional Development in Early Adulthood was what was covered in chapter 15. Topics included Continuity and Discontinuity from Childhood to Adulthood, Attraction, Love and Close friendships, Marriage/Family, The Diversity of Adult Lifestyles, Gender, Relationships, and Self Development. Temperament and Attachment were covered in the Continuity and Discontinuity from Childhood section of the chapter. Attraction, Love and Close Friendships was divided into three sections of attraction, the faces of love, and loneliness. Marriage and Family consisted of the family life cycle, marriage in general, the aspects of gender and emotion in Marriage, as well as parental roles. Single, cohabiting, divorced, remarried, gay and lesbian adults were examined in the diversity of adult lifestyles section of this chapter. The last section, Gender, Relationships, and Self-development consisted on the development of men and women. I enjoyed the section on marital expectations and myths because it gave me a good sense of what I can expect if I ever do get married. According to the book, the reason for our nations high divorce and dissatisfaction of marriage is due to the fact that we have too high of expectations. We expect our spouse to simultaneously be a lover, friend, a confidant, a counselor, a career person, and a parent. The myths of marriage were the most interesting part of this concept. Apparently, avoiding conflict does not save marriages, sex is not the main cause of affairs, and men arent all philanderers. After reading this chapter all I could say was, AMEN! Tools that make marriage work are establishing love maps, nurturing fondness and admiration, Turning toward each other instead of away, letting your partner influence you, and solving solvable conflicts. Useful tool were provided in this chapter. Chapter 16 Section 8 Middle Adulthood began as all other sections with Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood. Topics included in chapter 16 were changing middle age, physical development, cognitive development, careers, work, and leisure, religion and meaning of life. Physical development included physical changes, health and diseases, culture, personality, relationships and health, morality rates and sexuality. Cognitive development was described through the concepts of intelligence and information processing. Job satisfaction, career challenges and changes, and leisure were what was covered in the careers, work and leisure section. Finally, Religion and meaning of life consisted of the affect religion has on the health and psychological development of middle adult hood. This chapter was kind of depressing to read. It made me realize that middle adult hood is usually spent wishing that you were still in early adult hood and are constantly fearing for late adulthood. With middle adult hood comes a terrible physical change like wrinkles, aging spots, decrease in height, increase in weight and the more likelihood of containing a serious disease or illness such as cardio vascular disease. An interesting part of the chapter was the description of leisure in middle adult hood. Leisure refers to the pleasant times after work when individuals are free to pursue activities and interests of their own choosing. One aspect of middle adulthood to look forward to be the fact that most adults have more money therefore they can do hobbies such as traveling. He book states that traveling is very important to the well being of a middle adult because it gives them a chance to distress and get away from the typical routine aspects of life. Adults who vacation can live up to nine years longer than those who dont. Chapter 17 Chapter 17 was about the Socioemotional Development in Middle Adulthood. Personality theories and development in middle adult hood, which consisted of adult stage theories, the life events approach, and contexts of midlife development, were the first section of this chapter. Stability and Change was described by two concepts of longitudinal studies and conclusions. The last part of the chapter discussed close relationships which was described by love/marriage at midlife, the empty nest and its refilling, parenting conceptions, sibling relationships and friends, and intergenerational relationships. My mothers relationships with her siblings and parents are complex. Therefore the sibling relationships and friendships section of this book was what I felt I could identify with the most because I wanted to learn more about the dynamics of those relationships and how they change when you reach midlife. Unfortunately, the chapter didnt really cover anything it just said some stay close some grow apart. I would have like to know why some siblings stay close and some grow apart. In addition to maybe some strategies to keep those relationships close would have been nice. One interesting aspect of this chapter was the empty nest syndrome. According to the book the empty nest syndrome is the marital satisfaction decreases because parents derive considerable satisfaction from their children and the childrens departure leaves parents with empty feelings. Parents who live vicariously through their children suffer from emptiness syndrome. On the other hand, other couples greater marriage satisfaction when the children leave because they are able to live as they did before there was children, like more time for each other and other pursuits. Chapter 18 Finally Ive reached the last section which is the inevitable Late Adulthood. As always, The physical Development in Late Adulthood was examined first. The topics were Longevity, The course of physical development in late adulthood, and health. Longevity consisted of life expectancy, life span, the young old, the old old, and the oldest old and biological theories of aging. The course of physical development in late adulthood is the aging brain, physical appearance, sensory development, the circulatory system, the respiratory system, and sexuality development. As if all that wasnt enough, the book discussed late adulthood health, with topics of health problems, the robust oldest old, exercise, nutrition, weight, and finally health treatment. This chapter was depressing, informative, and interesting all at once. The depressing aspect of this chapter was the descriptions of the physical changes you face with late adulthood development. You become more vulnerable to diseases, we lose considerable muscle mass, contain a more sagging look, as well as loss of hearing, smell, taste and just about every other aspect of our physical being is worsen. Not to mention you become more asexual, due to diseases such as erectile dysfunction and societal views of disgust towards senior citizens engaging in such acts. Some of the more informative information in this chapter was the growing controversy over vitamins and aging. My grandparents take several vitamins because they were instructed that it was crucial to their health. According to the book, some researchers believe that just a balance diet is all that is needed to achieve health at an old age. Why this is true and important, other studies have shown that other factors such as pollution, smoking, and poor food quality can make it difficult, therefore those who took antioxidants like vitamin E reduced their chance of heart disease. Chapter 19 Chapter 19 was the Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood. The topics Cognitive functioning in older adults, work and retirement, the mental health of older adults, and religion in late adulthood were discussed. Cognitive functioning in older Adults consisted of the descriptions of the multidimensional, multidirectional nature of cognition, education, work, and health links to cognitive functioning, the use it or lose it approach, and the training of cognitive skills. Work and retirement talked about work for senior citizens in general, retirement in the united states and other countries and their adjustment to it. The mental health of older adults discussed its nature, depression, dementia, Alzheimers disease and other afflictions. As well as fear of victimization, crime, elder maltreatment, and meeting the mental health needs of older adults. I was very intrigued by the story of ninety-two year old Russell Bob Harrell. Apparently, this man puts in twelve hour days at Sieco Consulting Engineers in Columbus Indiana, as a highway and bridge engineer designing and planning roads. I

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Definition of Military Discipline :: Definition Disciplines Military Army Essays

Definition of Military Discipline Military Discipline is a state of order and obedience existing within a command. It involves the ready subordination of the will of the individual for the good of the group. Military discipline is an extension and specialized application of the discipline demands habitual but reasoned obedience that preserves initiative and functions unfalteringly even in the absence of the commander. Discipline is created within a command by instilling a sense of confidence and responsibility in each individual. Discipline demands correct performance of duty. The need for discipline is best inculcated in individual by appealing to his sense of reason. In the few instances where appeal to reason fail, the use of punishment is effective in causing a recalcitrant individual to conform and perhaps appreciate the need for discipline. Condemnation and earned praise from senior to his subordinate, either individually or collectively, for tasks well done serve to strengthen the disciplinary bonds which bind together the smooth functioning team. Max Anders says, "Only the disciplined ever get really good at anything." Everything in life requires some sort of discipline. Whether it is hitting a baseball, climbing a mountain, playing a musical instrument, making good grades or brushing your teeth it all comes down to a matter of discipline. "The core of a soldier is moral discipline. It is intertwined with the discipline of physical and mental achievement. Total discipline overcomes adversity, and physical stamina draws on an inner strength that says drive on." - Former Sergeant Major of the Army William G. Bainbridge Self-disciplined people are masters of their impulses. This mastery comes from the habit of doing the right thing. Self-discipline allows Army leaders to do the right thing regardless of the consequences for them or their subordinates. Under the extreme stress of combat, you and your team might be cut off and alone, fearing for your lives, and having to act without guidance or knowledge of what’s going on around you. Still, you—the leader—must think clearly and act reasonably. Self-discipline is the key to this kind of behavior. In peacetime, self-discipline gets the unit out for the hard training. Self-discipline makes the tank commander demand another run-through of a battle drill if the performance doesn’t meet the standard—even though everyone is long past ready to quit. Self-discipline doesn’t mean that you never get tired or discouraged—after all, you’re only human. It does mean that you do what needs to be done regardless of your feelings.

Female Deception in Hippolytus: The Ruin of Men Essay examples -- Gree

Female Deception in Hippolytus: The Ruin of Men Works Cited Missing In Ancient Greece, deceit was considered to be part of a woman's nature and an inherent female characteristic. It was generally believed that a good woman was the result of the careful cultivation of her morals by her guardians, and if left to her own devices, a woman was apt to be wicked. The deceit of women is a theme that shows up often in Ancient Greek literature, and many Ancient Greek authors portray women as jealous, plotting, deceitful, and vengeful creatures capable of destroying the men affiliated with them. Hippolytus, a tragedy by Euripides, is an excellent example of the Greek notion of the deception of women because it involves the deceit of a goddess as well as two women. In the beginning of the tragedy a very jealous Aphrodite delivers a self-serving justification of her actions as she prepares to punish the virgin Hippolytus. Aphrodite's reason for wanting to castigate Hippolytus is really quite selfish. She is extremely angry with him because he has sworn off physical love and he honors Artemis, the goddess of chastity rather than her, Aphrodite, the goddess of love. Scheming Aphrodite who made Phaedra, Hippolytus' step-mother, Phaedra, fall in love with Hippolytus, decides to reveal Phaedra's love because she knows that if Theseus, Hippolytus' father, discovers Phaedra's secret, "all shall come out," the truth will be revealed, "father shall slay son with curses," and Hippolytus will be ruined (line 43 and line44). As Aphrodite, who appears to be so hateful and cold, plots his demise she vengefully says, "He [Hippolytus] does not know that the doors of death are upon him, ... ...ent son. Although Theseus, unlike Hippolytus who was killed, still has his life, his life is now miserably filled with regret and guilt. The deception of women leads one man to his bitter death and another man to a life filled with remorse. Ultimately, the men's lives are ruined. In Hippolytus, three women, a goddess, a nurse, and a wife, each exemplify the Greek idea of the deceitful woman. Even though two of the women are from different social classes and positions and one of the women is an immortal goddess, they share something in common; none of them can evade their inescapable, natural female inclination toward trickery and deception. All of these women surrender to their cunning, duplicitous sides, and the people who pay the price for their deceitful deeds are the men connected to them whose lives are completely shattered.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Artificial Intelligence and Angelology :: Technology Science Computers Essays

Artificial Intelligence and Angelology ABSTRACT: Recently, as I have become more computer-literate, I have noticed some interesting parallels between computer mechanisms and Aquinas’ metaphysics of angelic faculties. The present essay expands on some of the analogies which Aquinas himself, though no proponent of AI theory, might have found interesting. One of the philosophy newsgroups on the Internet is entitled "comp.ai.philosophy." This group features constant variations on questions such as: how close can artificial intelligence (particularly computers) approximate to human consciousness? is free will reducible to neurological mechanisms? and so forth. From my unscientific sampling, I would estimate that the clientele of this newsgroup is about evenly split between those who tend towards a reductive materialism, and those who maintain that consciousness or some element in human consciousness is not reducible to neural structures or functions. So the classical "Hobbes vs. Berkeley" debate continues on into the twenty-first millennium. One of the problems facing those who theorize about the independence and irreducibility of consciousness is the fact that it is difficult to conceptualize the essence of consciousness, as distinct from the sensations, feelings, etc. that are often associated with consciousness. Here we are definitely getting into abstract metaphysics. Medieval philosophers such as Aquinas, Duns Scotus and Suarez faced up to this challenge with a little help from Christian revelation, by speculating about the characteristics and functions of angels or "separate substances," who would presumably exemplify consciousness in its "pure" state, without any distracting admixtures. In this paper, I would like to take a look in particular at Aquinas' theory of separate substances. With this theory, we bypass the old question of the reducibility or irreducibility of consciousness to its material conditions, and we also find, in my opinion, some interesting analogies to contemporary computer technology. It would be too much to hope that these analogies, even if substantial, would instigate a revival of interest in Angelology among technophiles. But those interested in the metaphysics of the mind-body problem may find them suggestive: Microprocessors and Angelic Self-possession: The microprocessors of today's computers are integrated circuits which contain the CPU on a single chip. The latest developments, with variable clock speeds now often exceeding 200 MHz, include Intell's Pentium chip, the IBM/Apple/Motorola PowerPC chip, as well as chips from Cyrix and AMD. The CPU chip is the heart of the computer; only memory and input-output devices have to be added. A small fan might be added on top of the fastest chips to cool them down, but in the chip itself there are no moving parts, no complex gaps between the movement being imparted and that which imparts the movement.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

In the Snack Bar Essay

I picked this poem because I could picture the main character and his daily struggle clearly as I read the poem. Edwin Morgan used a lot of descriptions within the poem describing the surrounding area of the cafe and described the main character. The main theme that runs thought the whole poem is one of the daily struggle that an elderly gentleman’s has to go through although people might be aware of his presence they are ignorant to the fact of the help and support that he might need. This is portrayed in the poem by the following lines:- â€Å"An old man is trying to get to his feet† â€Å"Slowly he leavers himself up, his hands have no power. † â€Å"He is as far up as he can get. The dismal hump looming over him forces his head down† â€Å"The face not seem, bent down in a shadow under his cap† â€Å"Even on his feet he is staring at the floor or would be if he could see† Edwin Morgan’s descriptions uses a lot of literary techniques to help us picture the character one of the techniques he uses is juxtaposition this is used to show that nobody is really interested in this gentleman. â€Å"A few heads turn in the crowded evening snack bar. † Juxtaposition again is used describing the gentleman getting to his feet with no self-esteem or status. â€Å"Slowly he leavers himself up, his hands have no power† The word leavers also could represent the hard mechanical movement that the hands go through slow and stiff. The next literary technique showed enjambment something that has more than one meaning this is shown in â€Å"The dismal hump looming over him forces his head down† This line could mean that the character has a humped back but it can also mean that the character has a dark cloud hanging over him no self-esteem, no status. That he is unseen in today’s society. â€Å"He stands in his stained beltless gabardine like a monstrous animal caught in a tent. † This sentence gives the allusion of a creature like King Kong it also has alliteration running through the theme that he slitters along unnoticed. The first turning point with in the poem that makes the character real instead of a creature when he states that the character is actually blind and although his appearance isn’t appealing to people around him he probably would not notice as he cannot see it. â€Å"Or it would be, if he could see†. Edwin Morgan then goes on to explain that he notices how the man’s white stick that once might have been new and clean was now all â€Å"scuffed and muddy† which told myself that the man probably lived alone, that there was no one there to help him co-ordinate and see that his clothes were clean and presentable. Edwin Morgan then lists the characters afflictions in the poem making you see him how everyone around may see almost making you feel pity for the gentleman. â€Å"Long-blind, hunchback born, half paralysed. † Edwin Morgan then makes the character real when he states that he â€Å"Speaks† This makes large probably dirty deformed object actually human. â€Å"I need the toilet† the character is also showing his vulnerability that he has to state out loud a personal function, making him fragile and dependant on someone else’s help. The text then changes into two people having a conversation stopping him from being the solitary object that people are ignoring to a person asking for help a human being. The gentle man hakes the man’s arm trying to take charge of the situation but the gentleman tells him â€Å"Give me your arm its better he says† Again the communication between the two gentlemen makes him real and also fragile once again that he is dependent on someone else’s help. Onamatapia is used in the next line to show the speed used to travel across the cafe â€Å"Inch by inch† With a passive reference on how they go â€Å"We drift† Edwin Morgan then describes what is possibly a short distance actually feels like a vast area by using the slimily. â€Å"A few yards of floor are like a landscape† The word landscape could also refer to obsicals that they have to avoid to cross the floor. That it feels to him like â€Å"Time has almost stopped† that it is taking an eternity to reach their destination. Edwin Morgan then sees the world through the gentleman’s perspective : â€Å"Slidie puddle from the night’s umbrella’s† â€Å"Table edges, people’s feet† â€Å"Hiss of the coffee – machine, voices and laughter,† â€Å"Smell of cigar, hamburgers, wet coats steaming.† And the shuffle of the slow pace to the stairs shoes alliterations the shuffling sound in the words â€Å"And the slow dangerous inches to the stairs† The tone of the poem changes to quite an active one here but it also shows how dependant the gentleman still is still vulnerable and needs help â€Å"I put his hand on the rail. † â€Å"And take his stick† â€Å"He clings to me. â€Å"The stick â€Å"this is enjambment the stick could represent the gentleman helping him. â€Å"White tiles and mirrors at last, he shambles† the writer is using synecdoche here to symbolise that they have reached their destination.